The Kingdom of Jordan has returned to the brink of martial law. In the face of structural adjustment and the Middle East peace process, both political liberalization and deliberalization have been used as regime survival strategies. King Hussein liberalized Jordanian politics in the late 1980s. However, the monarchy reversed its tactics as domestic opposition threatened to mobilize domestic discontent caused by the peace treaty with Israel and the new Palestinian Intifada. In a U.S.-led war on Iraq, King Abdullah II may need to resort to military rule to quell the potential for an insurrection and maintain his reign.